Anonymizing your MAC Address
Although it is not the only metadata broadcast by network hardware, changing the default MAC Address of your hardware could be an important step in protecting privacy. Currently, Qubes OS does not automatically “anonymize” or spoof the MAC Address, so until this is implemented by default you can randomize your MAC Address with one of the following guides using either Network Manager or macchanger…
Upgrading and configuring Network Manager in Qubes
Newer versions of Network Manager have a robust set of options for randomizing MAC addresses, and can handle the entire process across reboots, sleep/wake cycles and different connection states. In particular, versions 1.4.2 and later should be well suited for Qubes.
Network Manager 1.4.2 or later is available from the Fedora 25 repository as well as the Debian 9 repository, which you can install by upgrading a Debian 8 template to version 9.
In the Debian 9 or Fedora 25 template you intend to use as a NetVM, check that Network Manager version is now at least 1.4.2:
$ sudo NetworkManager -V 1.4.2
Write the settings to a new file in the
/etc/NetworkManager/conf.d/ directory, such as
mac.conf. The following example enables Wifi and Ethernet MAC address randomization while scanning (not connected), and uses a randomly generated but persistent MAC address for each individual Wifi and Ethernet connection profile.
[device] wifi.scan-rand-mac-address=yes [connection] wifi.cloned-mac-address=stable ethernet.cloned-mac-address=stable
stable generates a random address that persists for each boot session.
random generates a random address each time a link goes up.
To see all the available configuration options, refer to the man page:
Next, create a new NetVM using the new template and assign network devices to it.
Finally, shutdown all VMs and change the settings of sys-firewall, etc. to use the new NetVM.
You can check the MAC address currently in use by looking at the status pages of your router device(s), or in the NetVM with the command
sudo ip link show.
Configuring Qubes with macchanger and scripts
First thing you need to do is install macchanger package by opening your
fedora-23 TemplateVM and typing
sudo dnf install macchanger
Then create the file
fedora-23 located at
/etc/systemd/system/ directory using a text editor such as
sudo gedit /etc/systemd/system/macspoof@.service
Paste the following inside of that newly created file
[Unit] Description=macchanger on %I # Hack since macspoof@%i contains @ which is not allowed yet ConditionPathExists=/var/run/qubes-service/macspoof-%i Wants=network-pre.target Before=network-pre.target BindsTo=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%i.device After=sys-subsystem-net-devices-%i.device [Service] ExecStart=/usr/bin/macchanger -e %I Type=oneshot [Install] WantedBy=multi-user.target
How random do you want your MAC address?
Note in the above line
ExecStart=/usr/bin/macchanger -e %I we recommend the use of
macchanger with the
-e flag which randomizes the MAC address to an address by the same device vendor/manufacturer. There a number of other flags you could use instead, such as
-r which makes a totally random MAC address, which may map to a non-existent device vendor/manufacturer and make it obvious you are spoofing your MAC address. Some reasons why we have recommended
-e rather than
-r are in these resources:
Get the right iface names
It’s crucial to get the correct iface name for the devices (ethernet and wifi) you want to randomize. To get this,
sys-net (or wherever your device drivers are) and type in
terminal the command
ifconfig the printout
will look like:
enp0s0: flags=4099<UP,BROADCAST,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 ether 9e:d6:53:02:4b:b6 txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet) RX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B) RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0 device interrupt 52 memory 0xe1200000-e1220000 lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING> mtu 65536 inet 127.0.0.1 netmask 255.0.0.0 inet6 ::1 prefixlen 128 scopeid 0x10<host> loop txqueuelen 0 (Local Loopback) RX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B) RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 0 bytes 0 (0.0 B) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0 wlp0s1: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST> mtu 1500 inet 192.168.2.121 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.2.255 inet6 fe80::3602:86ff:fe1f:a7cf prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x20<link> ether 06:6d:70:a8:7b:35 txqueuelen 1000 (Ethernet) RX packets 41 bytes 5138 (5.0 KiB) RX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 frame 0 TX packets 32 bytes 3712 (3.6 KiB) TX errors 0 dropped 0 overruns 0 carrier 0 collisions 0
The iface name values you’re interested in are
wlp0s1 as those represent your ethernet and wifi
Also, in this printout is your actual MAC addresses which are needed to verify the randomizing is working correctly.
In this example, the ethernet and wifi addresses are
ether 9e:d6:53:02:4b:b6 and
respectively. Copy these MAC addresses down somewhere for later.
Now, go back to your
fedora-23 TemplateVM and use the
touch command to create service files in the appropriate
place, note that the
iface name values at the end:
cd /var/run/qubes-service/ sudo touch macspoof-enp0s0 sudo touch macspoof-wlp0s1
Verify the correct files exist in the directory
[user@fedora-23 qubes-service]$ ls cups macspoof-wlp0s1 qubes-update-check macspoof-enp0s0 meminfo-writer updates-proxy-setup
Now, also within the TemplateVM, type the following commands for each hardware device that you want to randomize a MAC addresses for
sudo systemctl enable macspoof@wlp0s1 Created symlink from /email@example.com to /etc/systemd/system/macspoof@.service. sudo systemctl enable macspoof@enp0s0 Created symlink from /firstname.lastname@example.org to /etc/systemd/system/macspoof@.service.
Now you can do the following:
- Stop your
- Stop your
Open your VM settings for
sys-net, navigate to Services, and add the new services:
Alternatively, you can enable these services for
sys-net from the command line by opening up Terminal in
dom0 and running the following:
qvm-service -e sys-net macspoof-wlp0s1 qvm-service -e sys-net macspoof-enp0s0
Verify it works
Go back to your
sys-net VM terminal, type
ifconfig and as before look at the values starting with
ether such as
ether 9e:d6:53:02:4b:b6 which should now look different from the previous values.
Your MAC address should now randomize each time you restart your computer or restart the
Usage Notes - Macchanger
This approach to MAC Randomizing has been tested and used by some users as well as some of the Qubes team. Observations that are to be expected are:
- This does not randomize your MAC Address on sleep and wake state (only on restarting the
sys-netnetworking VM takes longer for device drivers to start up than usual, this delayed startup may cause the first attempt of
sys-whonixto connect to Tor to fail
Disabling / Uninstalling Macchanger
To disable MAC Randomizing if you find that a network connecting to does not like changing MAC Addresses, you can disable temporarily or if you want to permanently remove this solution, do the following:
- Go to the
Servicespane on your
sys-netand uncheck all services starting with
- Go to the
Servicespane on your
sys-netand highlight the services starting with
- Now click the
-minus button to remove the service
- In your
sudo systemctl disable macspoof@wlp0s1
- Also in
sudo systemctl disable macspoof@enp0s0
- Remove the service file
sudo rm /etc/systemd/system/macspoof@.servicein TemplateVM
- Delete the package
sudo dnf remove macchanger