Upgrading the Fedora 23 Template

Summary: Upgrading the Standard Fedora 23 Template to Fedora 24

Note: The prompt on each line indicates where each command should be entered (@dom0 or @fedora-24).

    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-clone fedora-23 fedora-24
    [user@dom0 ~]$ truncate -s 5GB /var/tmp/template-upgrade-cache.img
    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-run -a fedora-24 gnome-terminal
    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-block -A fedora-24 dom0:/var/tmp/template-upgrade-cache.img
    [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdi
    [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo mount /dev/xvdi /mnt/removable
    [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo dnf clean all
    [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo dnf --releasever=24 --setopt=cachedir=/mnt/removable distro-sync

(Shut down TemplateVM by any normal means.)

    [user@dom0 ~]$ rm /var/tmp/template-upgrade-cache.img
    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-trim-template fedora-24

(Optional cleanup: Switch everything over to the new template and delete the old one. See instructions below for details.)

Detailed: Upgrading the Standard Fedora 23 Template to Fedora 24

These instructions will show you how to upgrade the standard Fedora 23 TemplateVM to Fedora 24. The same general procedure may be used to upgrade any template based on the standard Fedora 23 template.

Note: The command-line prompt on each line indicates where each command should be entered (@dom0 or @fedora-24).

  1. Ensure the existing template is not running.

    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-shutdown fedora-23
    
  2. Clone the existing template and start a terminal in the new template.

    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-clone fedora-23 fedora-24
    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-run -a fedora-24 gnome-terminal
    
  3. Attempt the upgrade process in the new template.

    [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo dnf clean all
    [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo dnf --releasever=24 distro-sync
    

    Note: dnf might ask you to approve importing a new package signing key. For example, you might see a prompt like this one:

    warning: /var/cache/dnf/fedora-d02ca361e1b58501/packages/python2-babel-2.3.4-1.fc24.noarch.rpm: Header V3 RSA/SHA256 Signature, key ID 81b46521: NOKEY
    Importing GPG key 0x81B46521:
     Userid     : "Fedora (24) <fedora-24-primary@fedoraproject.org>"
     Fingerprint: 5048 BDBB A5E7 76E5 47B0 9CCC 73BD E983 81B4 6521
     From       : /etc/pki/rpm-gpg/RPM-GPG-KEY-fedora-24-x86_64
    Is this ok [y/N]:
    

    This key was already checked when it was installed (notice that the “From” line refers to a location on your local disk), so you can safely say yes to this prompt.

    Note: If you encounter no errors, proceed to step 4. If you do encounter errors, see the next two points first.

    • If dnf reports that you do not have enough free disk space to proceed with the upgrade process, create an empty file in dom0 to use as a cache and attach it to the template as a virtual disk.

      [user@dom0 ~]$ truncate -s 5GB /var/tmp/template-upgrade-cache.img
      [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-block -A fedora-24 dom0:/var/tmp/template-upgrade-cache.img
      

      Then reattempt the upgrade process, but this time use the virtual disk as a cache.

      [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdi
      [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo mount /dev/xvdi /mnt/removable
      [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo dnf clean all
      [user@fedora-24 ~]$ sudo dnf --releasever=24 --setopt=cachedir=/mnt/removable distro-sync
      

      If this attempt is successful, proceed to step 4.

    • dnf may complain:

      At least X MB more space needed on the / filesystem.
      

      In this case, one option is to resize the TemplateVM’s disk image before reattempting the upgrade process. (See Additional Information below for other options.)

  4. Shut down the new TemplateVM (from the command-line or Qubes VM Manager).

    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-shutdown fedora-24
    
  5. Remove the cache file, if you created one.

    [user@dom0 ~]$ rm /var/tmp/template-upgrade-cache.img
    
  6. Trim the new template (see Compacting the Upgraded Template for details and other options).

    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-trim-template fedora-24
    
  7. (Recommended) Switch everything that was set to the old template to the new template, e.g.:

    1. Make the new template the default template:

      Qubes Manager –> Global settings –> Default template

    2. Base AppVMs on the new template. In Qubes Manager, for each VM that is currently based on fedora-23 that you would like to base on fedora-24, enter its VM settings and change the Template selection:

      Qubes Manager –> (Select a VM) –> VM settings –> Template

    3. Base the DispVM template on the new template.

      If you have set the new template as your default template:

      [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-create-default-dvm --default-template
      

      Otherwise:

      [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-create-default-dvm fedora-24
      
  8. (Optional) Remove the old template. (Make sure to type fedora-23, not fedora-24.)

    [user@dom0 ~]$ sudo dnf remove qubes-template-fedora-23
    

Summary: Upgrading the Minimal Fedora 23 Template to Fedora 24

Note: The prompt on each line indicates where each command should be entered (@dom0 or @fedora-24).

    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-clone fedora-23-minimal fedora-24-minimal
    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-run -a fedora-24-minimal xterm
    [user@fedora-24-minimal ~]$ su -
    [root@fedora-24-minimal ~]# dnf clean all
    [user@fedora-24-minimal ~]# dnf --releasever=24 distro-sync

(Shut down TemplateVM by any normal means.)

    [user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-trim-template fedora-24-minimal

(If you encounter insufficient space issues, you may need to use the methods described for the standard template above.)

Differences Between the Standard and Minimal Upgrade Procedures

The procedure for upgrading the minimal template (or any template based on the minimal template) is the same as the procedure for the standard template above, with the following exceptions:

  1. gnome-terminal is not installed by default. Unless you’ve installed it (or another terminal emulator), use xterm. (Of course, you can also use xterm for the standard template, if you prefer.)
  2. sudo is not installed by default. Unless you’ve installed it, use su as demonstrated above. (Of course, you can also use su for the standard template, if you prefer.)

Compacting the Upgraded Template

Neither fstrim nor the discard mount option works on the TemplateVM’s root filesystem, so when a file is removed in the template, space is not freed in dom0. This means that the template will use about twice as much space as is really necessary after upgrading.

You can use the qvm-trim-template tool:

[user@dom0 ~]$ qvm-trim-template fedora-24

Upgrading StandaloneVMs

The procedure for upgrading a StandaloneVM from Fedora 23 to Fedora 24 is the same as for a TemplateVM, except that qvm-trim-template does not work on StandaloneVMs. Instead, you should run the following command inside the StandaloneVM in order to compact it:

$ sudo fstrim -v -a

Additional Information

As mentioned above, you may encounter the following dnf error:

At least X MB more space needed on the / filesystem.

In this case, you have several options:

  1. Increase the TemplateVM’s disk image size. This is the solution mentioned in the main instructions above.
  2. Delete files in order to free up space. One way to do this is by uninstalling packages. You may then reinstalling them again after you finish the upgrade process, if desired). However, you may end up having to increase the disk image size anyway (see previous option).
  3. Increase the root.img size with qvm-grow-root.
  4. Do the upgrade in parts, e.g., by using package groups. (First upgrade @core packages, then the rest.)
  5. Do not perform an in-place upgrade. Instead, simply download and install a new template package, then redo all desired template modifications.

    With regard to the last option, here are some useful messages from the mailing list which also apply to TemplateVM management and migration in general: